Reference samples

References should follow the Chicago Manual of Style, Chapter 16, B Style. Here are some examples.


Domenico, P.A., and F.W. Schwartz. 1990. Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Journal article

Duncan, D.G., D.T. Pederson, T.R. Shepherd, and J.D. Carr. 1991. Atrazine used as a tracer of induced recharge: A closer look. Ground Water Monitoring Review 9, no. 4: 144-150.

Paper in a collection

Glaser, J.A. 1991b. Nutrient-enhanced bioremediation of oil-contaminated shoreline. In In Situ Bioreclamation, vol. 2, ed. R.E. Hinchee and R.F. Olfenbuttel, 219-27. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.


Glaser, J.A. 1991a. Monitoring of sub-part-per-billion levels of atrazine. Ph.D. diss., Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.


Groundwater Management Inc. 1987. Ashland project reports: The comprehensive development plan. Kansas City, Kansas: GMI.

— or —

Hammer, J.A., and J. Gibs. 1989. An analytical technique for screening purgeable volatile organic compounds in water. USGS Open-File Report 89-53.

Personal communication

Ross, J.E. 2002. Phone interview, June 27, Columbus, Ohio.

Format for in-text citations

(Glaser 1991a, 1991b; Thein 1992) NOT: (Glaser, 1991a)

(Duncan et al. 1991) NOT: (Duncan, et al. 1991) or (Duncan and others 1991)

Additional tips for references

  • Spell out names of publications. Do not abbreviate.
  • Don't forget to include the issue number when citing journal articles.
  • When referencing a book, proceedings, report, or paper in a collection, please remember to provide the city and publisher of the citation.
  • When referencing a personal communication, always provide the date and city of the communication (written or interview).